Other Hydrogen Resources
Cooperative R&D Projects
International collaboration on fuel cells and hydrogen R&D
has a long history. Two areas of note include activities related to
international codes and standards development and harmonization and United
Nations fuel cell demonstrations in developing countries.
Harmonization of International Standards
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is the world's largest
developer of technical standards, with a network of the national standards
institutes of 146 countries. ISO is a non-governmental organization that acts as
a bridging organization in which a consensus can be reached on solutions that
meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society, such as
the needs of stakeholder groups like consumers and users.
ISO Technical Committee ISO/TC 197 for hydrogen technologies was created in
1990. It has 15 participating countries, 15 observers and collaborates with 15
other ISO/IEC committees. Four standards have been published to date: Liquid
hydrogen — Land vehicle fuelling system interface; Hydrogen fuel — Product
specification; and Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen. The
Committee works closely with the
United Nations' World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations.
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that
prepares and publishes international standards for all electrical, electronic
and related technologies. These serve as a basis for national standardization
and as references when drafting international tenders and contracts.
Promoting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies in Developing Countries
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the
Facility (GEF) are supporting a fuel cell bus initiative that plans to
introduce up to 46 fuel cell buses in six cities in developing countries:
Beijing, Cairo, Mexico City, New Delhi, Sao Paulo, and Shanghai. For more
information on the initiative see the May 2004 Program Update (PDF
A number of public/private partnerships are focused on real-world
demonstration and market deployment of buses, cars, and fuelling stations
throughout the world.
Energy Partnership (CEP)
A consortium of corporate partners formed to demonstrate the reliability of
hydrogen in everyday motor vehicle operation. The CEP will test various
methods of hydrogen production as well as develop the hydrogen technologies
for vehicles to mass production capability
A joint venture to promote the use of hydrogen as a fuel for transport and
jointly owned by the Iceland Government and academic institutions (51%),
Shell Hydrogen (16%), Daimler Chrysler (16%) and Norsk Hydro (16%).
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Project
Led by Japan's Ministry of Economy Trade and Industry, over 20 automobile
manufacturers and energy companies are partnering to provide hydrogen
produced from a variety of resources for fuel cell vehicles in operation
- Partnership between the
Commercialization Conference of Japan (FCCJ), a voluntary industry
group, and the Policy Study Group for Fuel Cell Commercialization, a
government R&D group formed to meet the (We-NET) objectives, is working to
accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles.
FreedomCAR Partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S.
Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and members of the energy industry,
is working to advance high-technology research needed to produce practical,
affordable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles.
- California Fuel Cell
Partnership is collaborative of auto manufacturers, energy companies,
fuel cell technology companies, and government agencies committed to
promoting fuel cell vehicle commercialization as a means of moving towards a
sustainable energy future, increasing energy efficiency and reducing or
eliminating criteria pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions.
National hydrogen associations around the world are taking the initiative to
develop and promote regional collaboration.
- Partnership for
Advancing the Transition to Hydrogen (PATH)
Formed by the Canadian Hydrogen Association, the National Hydrogen
Association of the United States, and the Hydrogen Energy Systems Society of
Japan, PATH is working to establish national hydrogen associations and
promote of hydrogen energy industries in the developing countries of Latin
America and of the Pacific Rim Countries.
Fuel Cell Bus Club Brings together the CUTE (Clean Urban Transport for
Europe), ECTOS (Ecological City Transport System) and STEP (Sustainable
Transport Energy Project) projects underway in Europe and Australia in the
largest fuel cell bus demonstration in the world. Currently the Fuel Cell
Bus Club is operating 33 Daimler Chrysler fuel cell buses with Ballard fuel
cell systems in 10 major European cities and Perth, Australia.
Public/private partnerships are supported by an increasing number of regional
and bilateral Government initiatives.
EU Research Framework Programs
Provides funding for hydrogen and fuel cells R&D throughout the EU.
- EU European Integrated Hydrogen Projects (EIHP
1 and 2)
Supports regulations and harmonization of standards related to hydrogen
energy and fuel cells.
Fuel Cell Annex to the US-EU Non-Nuclear Energy Cooperation Agreement
This R&D Collaboration Program will focus on transportation demonstration
programs, Auxiliary Power Units (APUs); codes and standards; fuel choice and
critical material studies, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) and high
temperature fuel cell hybrid systems; direct methanol and PEM fuel cells for
stationary and transport applications and support studies.
Sequestration Leadership Forum
International climate change initiative that will focus on development of
carbon capture and storage technologies as a means to accomplishing
long-term stabilization of greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere. This
initiative is designed to improve carbon capture and storage technologies
through coordinated research and development with international partners and
Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor
The mission of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)
is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion
energy for peaceful purposes. To do this, ITER's participant
members/countries will demonstrate moderate power multiplication,
demonstrate essential fusion energy technologies in a system integrating the
appropriate physics and technology, and test key elements required to use
fusion as a practical energy source.
- International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative
I-NERI was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in fiscal year FY
2001 as a mechanism for coordinating international research and development
(R&D) on next-generation nuclear energy systems known as Generation IV. I-NERI,
the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative, the Advanced Fuel Cycle
Initiative (AFCI), and the President's Hydrogen Initiative, are key elements
of the Federal effort to foster global cooperation in development of
advanced nuclear energy technology.